*(Po-ta-mo-gee-tons) a family of mostly native pondweeds
Aquatic Plants vs. Invasive Species
Eurasian Watermilfoil, Curly-leaf Pondweed, Water Chestnut, Purple Loosestrife. These are all invasive weeds, plants that aren’t native to the lakes and wetlands in our region. The introduction of an invasive weed can be the difference between desirable vegetation and suffocating weed growth. Invasive plants generally have no natural enemies or population controls when they are introduced to a new environment. Therefore they grow and reproduce vigorously, crowding out more diversified and desirable flora. A native plant community that took decades to become established can be replaced, literally, in a few short years. This destruction of the native plant community has devastating effects on the fauna of an ecosystem. The habitat and food source of wildlife are drastically altered, impacting everything from insects and small fish, to birds and larger mammals.
The spread of invasive species has been occurring since the beginning of international and global commerce, but has increased more recently with the growth of the landscaping and aquarium industries. In the last decade scientists have begun to sound the alarm over the impact of invasive species on biodiversity. Conservation organizations such as the Nature Conservancy have helped increase awareness of the problems caused by invasive species, and environmental agencies at all levels of government have recognized the problem and begun to respond.
Many states, including New York have produced educational materials and signs to prevent the spread of aquatic species by boaters, and have also passed regulations prohibiting the sale of many of these species by garden centers or aquarium dealers. New Jersey is currently considering similar regulations. At the federal level, numerous agencies such as the EPA, USDA, DOD, USFW & NOAA have established policies combating invasive species. In addition, two interagency groups have been formed, the Federal Interagency Committee for the Management of Noxious and Exotic Weeds, and the Aquatic Nuisance Species Task Force, which are dedicated to fighting invasive weeds.
Allied Biological has been managing invasive weeds in lakes and ponds for over thirty years, and in the last five years has conducted a growing number of projects in freshwater and tidal wetlands. The goal of these programs is to restore the habitat of native species, although the permanent removal of invasive weeds is often a difficult and long term project. Although these plant invaders have been identified and are actively managed in many places, they continue to spread throughout the lakes, streams and wetlands of our region at an alarming rate.
In this issue...
- Greenwood Lake
- New Milford Pond Dredge
- Aeration for Mosquitos
- Rahway River Marsh
- Dalefishers Marsh
- Wetlands & TNC
- News Briefs
- Packanack Lake
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Are Frogs Disappearing?
In the late 1980’s, scientists throughout the world noted a sharp decline among amphibian populations. Amphibians, which include frogs, toads and salamanders, are often referred to as a sort of “canary in the coal mine”. Since amphibians breathe through their skin, they are more vulnerable to environmental stress, and therefore are considered an indicator species of environmental health. As the scientific community began to look seriously at population trends of frogs and other amphibians during the early 90’s, students in Minnesota discovered an abundance of frogs with malformations in a local wetland. News of the discovery led to more sightings of deformed frogs in Minnesota, as well as Vermont, New Hampshire and other, Western states. Currently, the National Biological Information Infrastructure, a program of the United States Geological Survey (USGS), states that frog deformities have been documented in 44 states, and involve almost 60 species.
What’s harming the frogs? Anti-pesticide advocates were quick to put the blame on pesticide use as the culprit. However, research suggests that several factors may be affecting the nations’ frogs. Loss of habitat is perhaps the most obvious and least contentious factor. For decades the Village of Greenwood Lake has been struggling with uncontrollable growth of the noxious weed Eurasian Watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum). Annual weed harvesting efforts have been well intended, but inadequate, and residents and business owners have been greatly impacted. Marinas, in particular, have suffered heavy losses on this regional, recreational use lake.
Rather than admit defeat and allow the lake, as well as residents’ property values and businesses to decline, Orange County Legislator Ben Winstanley and Village Mayor Bill Morris sought to educate the community on the use of aquatic herbicides as a management tool. On February 21, 2001, The Village of Greenwood Lake sponsored a public meeting on lake issues and asked several scientists in the Environmental and Lake Management fields to attend and offer their expertise. In attendance were Arthur Block, Senior Regional Representative for the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR); Mark Moran, NYDEC Region 3 Director; Tom DeChilio, NYDEC Region 3 Pesticide Control Specialist; Mario DelVeccaro, USEPA; Dr. Adrian Enache, USEPA; John Mulligan, Greenwood Lake Watershed Management District; Dr. Jay Bloomfield, NYDEC Chief of Northern Watersheds Section; and Glenn Sullivan, Allied Biological, Inc. Residents listened as these experts discussed the problems of Greenwood Lake and the issue of herbicide use, in particular the use of fluridone. Mr. Block’s presentation immediately put the use of fluridone into perspective. Based on consultation with ATSDR
offices in Atlanta, Washington D.C. and Washington State, Mr. Block stated that the rates used in a previous program and now proposed were well below allowable use rates, and that his agency would have absolutely no objection to the application of this product according to USEPA label directions. This was later backed up by Dr. Enache, who explained in detail the elaborate pre-approval process for pesticide registration and, more importantly, explained that the use rate of fluridone was many hundred times less than the tested NOEL (No Observable Effect Level). The presentations concluded with a moving speech from Dr. Jay Bloomfield, qualifying the need for pesticide use, but also more importantly, the need for changes in cultural habits and attitudes in order to protect and preserve our lake environments. The result of this gathering of the Village and the scientific community was a better educated public, and the hopes that this season the Village of Greenwood Lake will not be held hostage by the aquatic invader, Eurasian Watermilfoil. This can occur as the destruction of wetlands on a large scale, or as the simple elimination of land/water habitats along lake or pond edges. The use of fertilizers has also been documented as a causal agent. A researcher from Oregon State University found that ammonium nitrate fertilizer had an acute effect on adult frogs in the Pacific Northwest, and lower concentrations of nitrate and nitrite also had negative effects on the larval stages of some amphibians.(1) In August of last year, the USGS announced that an iridovirus disease had been associated with large die-offs of frogs in the Midwest and East. The agency also cites a chytrid fungus, ultraviolet radiation and rising temperatures as likely factors. Probably the most alarming explanation is the increase of non-native predators such as stocked game fish. A research team from the US Forest Service and the University of California found that trout stocking has been disastrous for some frog species in Sierra Nevada lakes. This federally financed study released in April 2000 showed that the population of a native frog vanished from over 90% of its range primarily because it was being devoured by introduced trout. A second study also found that frogs were seven times more likely to be found in Kings Canyon National Park, which discontinued trout stocking entirely in the 1970’s, than in the adjacent John Muir Wilderness, were trout have been stocked intensively since the 1950’s.(2)
What’s being done? Obviously, more research is needed to identify the prime factors leading to the decline of frogs and other amphibians. The USGS maintains a program called FrogWeb in cooperation with the Nature Conservancy to document amphibian declines and deformities. A task force of scientists has also set up the North American Amphibian Monitoring Program, which is run by the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center in Maryland. To do its part, the US Fish & Wildlife Service (USFWS) launched a scientific study in the Summer of 2000 on it’s 43 wildlife refuges to determine the cause of frog deformities. On the local level, New Jersey is conducting a program called the Herptile Atlas, which is a quantitative survey of reptiles and amphibians in the state. For information on how you can help the frogs and other amphibians in your area, contact our office or the USFWS for a brochure called the “Homeowner’s Guide to Protecting Frogs-Lawn and Garden Care”.
(1)Marco, Adolfo et.al., "Sensitivity To Nitrate and Nitrite in Pond-Breeding Amphibians From the Pacific Northwest, USA", Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry: Vol. 18, No. 12.
(2) Forstenzer, Martin, "When the Trout Arrive, the Amphibian Exodus Begins", The New York Times, Nov. 28, 2000.
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Greenwood Lake, NY: Expert Advise & New Hope
For decades the Village of Greenwood Lake has been struggling with uncontrollable growth of the noxious weed Eurasian Watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum). Annual weed harvesting efforts have been well intended, but inadequate, and residents and business owners have been greatly impacted. Marinas, in particular, have suffered heavy losses on this regional, recreational use lake.
Rather than admit defeat and allow the lake, as well as residents’ property values and businesses to decline, Orange County Legislator Ben Winstanley and Village Mayor Bill Morris sought to educate the community on the use of aquatic herbicides as a management tool. On February 21, 2001, The Village of Greenwood Lake sponsored a public meeting on lake issues and asked several scientists in the Environmental and Lake Management fields to attend and offer their expertise. In attendance were Arthur Block, Senior Regional Representative for the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR); Mark Moran, NYDEC Region 3 Director; Tom DeChilio, NYDEC Region 3 Pesticide Control Specialist; Mario DelVeccaro, USEPA; Dr. Adrian Enache, USEPA; John Mulligan, Greenwood Lake Watershed Management District; Dr. Jay Bloomfield, NYDEC Chief of Northern Watersheds Section; and Glenn Sullivan, Allied Biological, Inc.
Residents listened as these experts discussed the problems of Greenwood Lake and the issue of herbicide use, in particular the use of fluridone. Mr. Block’s presentation immediately put the use of fluridone into perspective. Based on consultation with ATSDR offices in Atlanta, Washington D.C. and Washington State, Mr. Block stated that the rates used in a previous program and now proposed were well below allowable use rates, and that his agency would have absolutely no objection to the application of this product according to USEPA label directions. This was later backed up by Dr. Enache, who explained in detail the elaborate pre-approval process for pesticide registration and, more importantly, explained that the use rate of fluridone was many hundred times less than the tested NOEL (No Observable Effect Level). The presentations concluded with a moving speech from Dr. Jay Bloomfield, qualifying the need for pesticide use, but also more importantly, the need for changes in cultural habits and attitudes in order to protect and preserve our lake environments.
The result of this gathering of the Village and the scientific community was a better educated public, and the hopes that this season the Village of Greenwood Lake will not be held hostage by the aquatic invader, Eurasian Watermilfoil.
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Aquascaping - Improving the Line Between Land & Water
Rainfall provides water to streams, lakes and ponds in the form of runoff. This runoff rarely ends its journey in a pristine state, but accumulates a variety of substances in its travels. In addition to silt, runoff carries nutrients into the receiving lake or pond, which can significantly alter that water’s productivity. An uninterrupted transition between land and water, such as a grassy slope, provides no opportunity for filtration of this runoff.
"Aquascaping" identifies the establishment of a vegetated buffer zone along the margin of a stream, lake or pond. It focuses on the planting of wetland emergent vegetation both within and just above the water’s edge. Plants are generally installed in small plugs, and within 1-2 seasons, can provide a densely vegetated buffer zone as they reach maturity. There are multiple benefits to this buffer zone. First and foremost, it provides a filtration medium by impeding surface flow and absorbing nutrients. It also acts as a barrier to waterfowl, forcing them to fly over the area to move between land and water. By establishing a dense vegetative cover, the buffer zone also provides erosion control on the banks of the stream, lake or pond. Finally, the plants themselves provide habitat for wildlife species such as small birds, fish, reptiles and amphibians, which would not otherwise use a barren, unvegetated or grassy shoreline.
While the beauty of an aquascaped shoreline is its own reward, with flowering yellow and blue irises, purple pickerelweeds and bright red cardinal flowers, the functionality of the concept is becoming more popular. Allied Biological has incorporated aquascaping into the management plan for many of its lake and pond clients. The homeowners of Washington Pond are planning to have their pond shoreline aquascaped this Spring. The pond sits in a beautifully landscaped area, which includes two decorative fountain aerators, but the immediate shoreline is unprotected. Using a combination of natural fiber logs and mats, Allied Biological plans to stabilize the pond banks, and then install a variety of attractive, native, wetland plants to establish an effective buffer zone.
Aquascaping may not replace the need for weed and algae control in highly productive lakes or ponds, but it is another tool in the integrated approach to ecological management of streams, lakes and ponds.
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Aeration May Reduce Mosquito Habitat
Last year’s outbreak of encephalitis has focused increased attention on mosquito control throughout New York, New Jersey and other eastern states. Generally, mosquito control programs are administered by county agencies, and these programs have been expanded dramatically. Still, it is impossible for the county agencies to address every possible mosquito haven. Therefore, pond and lake owners may want to take extra precautions to minimize their mosquito breeding habitat.
The Cooperative Extension Programs of both Rutgers University and Cornell University recommend good water management as one facet of mosquito habitat reduction. One of these management measures is the increase of water movement, which creates inhospitable conditions for larval and pupal mosquitos. Depending on the size and depth of your water body, this can be accomplished by either a submersed air injection system or a floating fountain aerator.
A submersed air injection system pumps air from a compressor located on the shoreline, to one or more diffusers in the deeper portions of the lake or pond. The diffusers release the air as tiny bubbles, which then rise to the surface and spread out, creating a convection current. The deeper the water, the better this system works.
In shallower water, a floating fountain aerator may be more effective at circulating water. Fountains pull water from within the lake or pond and shoot it into the air in a decorative pattern. The water absorbs oxygen in the air, and creates circulation as it lands on the water surface. Specialized fountains can also shoot water horizontally to create an even stronger current.
Allied Biological annually sells and services more than 100 fountains and aeration systems and is a proud Distributor and Service Center for Aquamaster Fountains and Great Lakes Aeration Systems.
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"Tidelands" Delay Dredging at New Milford Park Pond
In the fall of 1998, the Borough of New Milford, along with help from Allied Biological, set out to combat Mother Nature’s process of eutrophication. Eutrophication, the aging of lakes, had decreased water holding capacity, increased noxious weed and algae growth and diminished the aesthetic value of the pond.
The initial steps in restoring the pond entailed a basic measurement of the accumulated sediment present. An accurate lake bathymetry plan was created and depicted both the former pond bottom and the current bottom. The survey established the total amount of accumulated sediment present and supported the need for dredging the Park Pond. ABI developed a soil erosion and sediment control plan and a dredge report for the proposed project next. Permit applications, including the necessary requirements, were submitted to the state and local authorities for their review.
One year later, progress towards obtaining the necessary permits from the state, county and municipality has come slowly. The local authorities required only minor additions, however, the state required additional permits that were not originally anticipated. As it turns out, the Borough Pond was formerly tide influenced and thus required a Tidelands License and a Waterfront Development Permit.
As of this date, the Borough is still waiting patiently for confirmation from the state to proceed with authorization for dredging their Park Pond.
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Dalefishers Marsh Enters Next Stage of Restoration
In 1998, Dalefishers Marsh supported a dense monoculture of common reed (phragmites sp.) on more than 75% of its 150 acre area. That fall, Allied Biological began a restoration program developed by the wetland consulting firm, Shisler Environmental and approved by the Army Corps of Engineers. The first stage of the project called for aerial broadcast spraying of an aquatic herbicide, to be followed by mowing of the phragmites stalks during the winter. Since phragmites isn’t successfully controlled in one year without excavating, the broadcast spraying and cutting process was to be repeated in successive seasons.
After the first cycle of spraying/mowing, the area of phragmites infestation declined in size by over 26% as more desirable native species began to encroach on the perimeters of the site. Following the second spraying/mowing cycle in fall 1999/spring 2000, the infestation decreased another 48%! Again, the encroachment of wetland species including cattails (Typha sp.), sedges (Cyperus sp.), and rushes (Juncus sp.), and other more desirable plants increased around the site perimeters.
At that stage, Allied Biological began to alter the herbicide application method. In order to encourage areas of desirable plants which didn’t support phragmites, the herbicide application was conducted completely with ground equipment and a hand-operated spray gun. Although the entire site was traversed, only 37% of the area was actually treated for phragmites. The step from aerial broadcast applications to selective spraying represents a major accomplishment in the restoration process.
In 2001, Allied Biological looks to take the process one step further by following this spring’s cutting work with an early season herbicide wicking application . Wicking is essentially wiping of the herbicide directly onto the plant’s leaves. Using a specially modified amphibious vehicle, biologists will traverse the site mechanically wicking herbicide only on plants at a specific height. Since phragmites tends to grow taller than other desirable vegetation, only the phragmites plants will be treated. This will improve conditions for those preferred species during the current growing season.
While the ongoing removal of phragmites at this site has been very successful, the goals of the restoration process are also being achieved. Nesting habitat and forage have dramatically improved and wildlife use has increased as the impenetrable phragmites growth was replaced by a diversity of lower and less dense vegetation. People who have visited the site for years commented on the abundance of both ducks and deer throughout the marsh in the past two seasons. The hydrology of the site has improved also. The site is bisected by a medium-sized river, which floods seasonally. With the removal of the phragmites infestation, the marsh retains a greater amount of stormwater, thereby decreasing floodwaters in the residential areas downstream.
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Rahway River Wetland Restoration
As part of a mitigation project, native tidal wetland was created along a park and boardwalk on the Rahway River. This park provided residents with a respite from the city and a chance to observe birds, wildlife and native wetland plants. Unfortunately, Phragmites australis encroached on the site from adjacent sites, displacing the restored plants, preventing access to the river’s edge and even impairing the view of the river. Further, phragmites, if not controlled, would render the wetland mitigation unsuccessful.
Allied Biological, well-known for its ability to ‘see the wetland through the Phrag’ was contracted by the design engineer to undertake the task of ridding this wetland and park of phragmites and restoring native plants to the impacted areas. Because much of the phragmites was growing in stands mixed with desirable plants, particularly Saltmeadow Cordgrass (Spartina patens), hand spraying and wiping of a herbicide on individual stands and plants was necessary. In the fall, Allied Biological biologists manually cut the phragmites to ground level, or to a height just above the native plants. This was done to allow sunlight to reach the soil and allow better re-growth of native plants that remained along the river. All phragmites stems were then raked from the wetland to expose soils and remove the weed-seed bank.
The next phase of this project involves digging plugs of Saltmeadow Cordgrass on site and replanting them in areas from which native plants were displaced. This method was selected to minimize cost & also to obtain plant stock that was well established in the immediate area. The end result will be a successful wetland restoration site inhabited by native plant species where residents can again enjoy a small piece of nature in urban New Jersey.
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( Lythrum salicaria)
This aggressive plant grows up to six feet tall and has vivid purple flower spikes. Introduced from Eurasia, this attractive, but noxious wetland species is a serious threat to native plant communities. Its ability to produce hundreds of thousands of seeds per plant allow it to crowd out other species and make it extremely difficult to control in large areas.
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Wetlands Restoration with The Nature Conservancy
Among conservation organizations, The Nature Conservancy is the country’s premier protector and steward of environmentally sensitive areas. The organization began with a 60 acre preserve in Westchester County, NY, and now manages lands in at least 28 countries around the world.
One of the unique features of The Nature Conservancy is that it actually restores and manages land. In doing so, it has brought to the forefront the issues of species loss and biodiversity. In the words of Bruce Babbitt, former Secretary of the Interior, "What The Nature Conservancy stands for is the first practical, down-to-earth recognition of species loss ...."
The loss of native species and the decline of biodiversity are often the result of invasions of more aggressive, exotic species. The Nature Conservancy is proactive in its approach to these “invasive” species, and in the last few years, Allied Biological has been pleased to assist The Nature Conservancy in several of its wetlands restoration programs. The programs take place on either Conservancy-owned or managed land, and include a variety of activities such as herbicide applications, mechanical and manual weed removal and revegetation.
The most recent project took place on the Connecticut River for the Conservancy’s Connecticut Chapter. Allied Biological was instrumental in the initial phase of controlling Phragmites australis in a 200-acre tidal marsh. The project was supervised by the Connecticut DEP and facilitated by a New England firm, Aquatic Control Technology (ACT). Over three weeks, Allied Biological and ACT used specialized equipment to conduct ground herbicide applications to 15 foot tall plants, since the State of Connecticut prohibits the use of aerial spraying. After the standing phragmites are mowed over the winter, the second herbicide application will be scheduled for this fall.
At New Jersey’s largest wetland restoration project site in the Salem County area, the NJ Chapter of the Conservancy recently assumed management responsibilities for many of the restored areas. Out of its Delaware Bayshores Office, the Conservancy maintains the ecological balance of these areas, as well as the facilities necessary for the public to appreciate them first hand. In the meantime, Allied Biological continues to work at removing exotic species from new areas within the 1000+ acre site.
In an upcoming project, Allied Biological will be assisting the South Fork Chapter of The Nature Conservancy with the reclamation of a freshwater lake shoreline. Although much smaller in scale, the project is similar to other wetland restorations and involves the removal of invasive plants and the encouragement or reintroduction of native species.
Allied Biological is a proud participant in projects with and for the Nature Conservancy, and is pleased to support several Chapters of the organization. You can learn more about The Nature Conservancy by accessing their website at http://www.nature.org/.
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The 2nd Annual Northeast Aquatic Plant Management Society Conference was held on January 16-17 in Suffern, New York and was a great success. Next year’s conference is moving to Sturbridge, Massachusetts on January 22-23, 2002 and NEAPMS plans to have another outstanding program of academic, regulatory and industry speakers and attendees.
Griffin Corp. introduced its long-awaited systemic herbicide AVAST! at the NEAPMS conference this winter. AVAST! Contains 41.7% fluridone, the same amount as rival product Sonar. Depending on the use rate, AVAST! can provide selective or broad spectrum control.
Changes to the New Jersey Pesticide Regulations have been proposed for this Spring. The primary changes include additional training requirements for pesticide applicators and increased notification policies for applications around schools and on farms.
The Borough of Mountain Lakes recently received an Environmental Achievement Award for the reduction of non-point source pollution from the Town DPW facility. The award was presented by the Association of New Jersey Environmental Commissions.
Last year’s 100-year flood in northern New Jersey left Seneca Lake high and dry when the dam was breached. Like many small lake communities, the property owners don’t have any formal organization, or the resources to make the necessary structural repairs. Until government funding becomes available, the community will have to do without their seasonal lake pursuits.
Allied Biological recently was presented the Natural Resources Award at the 14th Annual Warren County Business Awards. The award was presented by the Warren County Board of Chosen Freeholders and included a commendation from the New Jersey General Assembly.
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Lake Community Highlight - Packanack Lake
Nestled within the municipal boundaries of Wayne Township in Passaic County lies 88-acre Packanack Lake. This beautiful lake is primarily used for recreational purposes by the Packanack Lake Country Club and Community Association, a private, 1600 family lakeside community. Packanack Lake provides a variety of recreational opportunities to members including fishing, boating (non-power) and swimming. Formal organizations within the Community include the Angler’s Club, Swim Club, Athletic Assn., Garden Club, Yacht Club and Summer Recreation Program Assn. The wide streets and community paths make walking the 2 miles around the lake a popular activity.
Year round organized activities are numerous, from indoor club events, such as dances, fundraisers and exercise clinics to outdoor lake activities including tournaments, swim meets, beach parties and community barbecues. There is a 9-hole golf course that has 18 tee and pin locations and hosts various tournaments during the year.
The Association initiates and maintains comprehensive programs designed to protect the water quality and aesthetics of the lake. Annual programs in Aquatic Vegetation Management, Community Education, Fisheries Management and Water Quality Monitoring contribute to the ecological balance of Packanack Lake.
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Calendar of Events
- New Jersey Coalition of Lake Associations Meeting April 7, 9:00am, Lake Mohawk Country Club, Sparta, NJ 973-635-6629
- Invasive Species Seminar—The Great Swamp Outdoor Education Center Presented by the Center Director, April 19, 7:00pm, Chatham, New Jersey
- USEPA/North American Lake Management Society Mid-Year Conference, April 18-20, Chicago, Ill. http://www.nalms.org/
- New York State Federation of Lake Associations Annual Conference May 4-6, White Eagle Conference Center, Hamilton, New York http://www.nysfola.org/
- Aquatic Plant Management Society National Conference July 15-18, Minneapolis, Minnesota http://www.apms.org/
- International Conference on Aquatic Invasive Species October 1-4, Alexandria, Virginia http://www.aquatic-invasive-species-conference.org/
- North American Lake Management Society Annual Conference November 7-9, Madison, Wisconsin http://www.nalms.org/
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Krista Michniewicz (Mick-nev-ich)
Regulatory Affairs Specialist
Krista is a 1996 graduate from Delaware Valley College with a B.S. degree in Environmental Science. She began work at Allied Biological in the summer of 1994 and accepted a full-time position after graduating. In addition to handling Allied Biological’s regulatory affairs, Krista is also an Administrative Assistant and office computer guru. She’s a whiz with the Access database. She has continued her education after graduation with Rutgers University courses in Lake Management, Global Positioning Systems and Planning Grant Opportunities.
Congratulations are in order for Krista and husband, Rich, on the February birth of their first son, Zachary Thomas. The family is doing very well and is enjoying their maternity leave together. We miss her and look forward to her return in April.
A Special Thanks...
In our first issue of Potamogetons, we extended a welcome to our newest clients. In this issue, we would like to welcome back some of our most loyal clients and extend our thanks for your continuing endorsement.
- Seneca Lake, ‘70
- Walnut Hill Country Club, ‘72
- Horseshoe Lake, ‘76
- Shawnee Lake Club, ‘77
- Lake Owassa, ‘79
- Cozy Lake, ‘82
- Lake Forest Y.C., ‘82
- Bear Pond, ‘83
- Borough of Allendale, ‘84
- Philip Morris Corporation, ‘84
- Borough of Mountain Lakes, ’84
- Sturbridge Lakes Assn., ‘86
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